With the help of the VISTA Survey Telescope located at the La Silla Paranal Observatory, new galaxies have been discovered at the edge of the universe by scientists, roughly 574 massive galaxies dating back to the infant stages of our universe.
Because of the massive size of these galaxies, theories concerning the formation of galaxies after the Big Bang have been turned on their heads. Until now, galaxy models that contain galaxies formed in the early stages of the universe, between 1.1 and 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang, have only contained small galaxies. By revamping galactic formation theories and models according to these new findings, scientists hope to achieve a better understanding of galactic and stellar evolution and the mechanisms that drive them.
The Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, or VISTA, is the perfect tool when looking for older galaxies. After the universe began to expand because of the events of the Big Bang, galaxies that formed in its infancy were thrown to the outer rim, making their light extremely dim and stretched to infrared levels before it hits our planet.
Due to this phenomenon, such galaxies were completely hidden from us, until this discovery shed light on them, all 574 of them.
By studying this, astronomers are hoping to pinpoint when exactly massive galaxies first appeared in our universe. But even after this massive discovery, scientists are still a bit wary. Depending on the concentration of dust inside of galaxies, light might not be able to be carefully examined by us, thus creating the possibility that even if we create a complex model of galactic evolution right at this moment, it might prove to be completely wrong.
Even more, because of their enormous distance from us, we cannot even begin to fathom what we may find inside of these galactic titans, mainly due to our technology not being as advanced as we currently need it to be.
In order to get a better picture of the outer rim and its titan galaxies, astronomers will turn to ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. After these calculations and readings are either proved or disproved, the only thing they can do is wait for the aptly named 127-feet European Extremely Large Telescope which will be functional in the year 2024.
Despite the fact that these new galaxies have been discovered at the edge of our universe, the question concerning whatever is left out there to see still remains to this day, and will probably stay unanswered until scientists will be able to use the E-ELT in 2024.